A transistor is made by joining one Positive Typed semiconductor in between two Negative Typed semiconductors, or one Negative Typed semiconductor in between two Positive Typed semiconductors. The first is called an NPN Transistor . The second is called a PNP Transistor . All transistors have three terminals, called (B)ase , (E)mitter, and (C)ollector . Therefore a transistor can be connected as a two port network.
These are Tiny Chips that integrate the Microprocessor and Peripheral chips in a compact size with low power consumption. PIC Microcontrollers from Microchip are the evolved computing digital devices that go into many gadgets and intelligent equipment. These are easy to program and reprogram and even protect your code or IP. The PIC has the math power. The memory, the I/O ports are integrated in the chip like 8051.
When you wish to Interface an Embedded System to your computer, you will need a Terminal Emulation Software to communicate with the device over the serial port. Now USB is the default port in most computers. Hence we have USB to serial Interfaces. Over this Interface Data and Firmware can be Transferred up and down. You have to be familiar with serial interface and the traditional RS232 to understand basics of data communications.
Accelerometers and Gyroscopes as well as combination IMU devices, Inertial Measurement Unit. inertial MEMS. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems sensors, in particular Accelerometers and Gyroscopes as well as combinations .The ADXL345 from Analog Devices is a small, thin, low power, 3-axis accelerometer with high resolution 13-bit measurement at up to ±16 g.
An accelerometer is a device that measures non-gravitational accelerations. These are accelerations produced by mechanically accelerating the accelerometer via its casing. Accelerometers can be used to measure vehicle acceleration. Accelerometers can be used to measure vibration on cars, machines, buildings, process control systems and safety installations.
Electronic Product Design and development capability can be refined and enhanced only by practical experience. A student can learn these aspects by working in a Engineering Service Company. Building Custom design Solutions for clients will build skills of component selection, black box specs, customer communication and prototype testing among many others.