EE Design Fundamentals

Electronics Product Design

Product Design

When you wish to Begin to learn Electronics, first a short study of Physics is essential, secondly some Electronics theory. Then build simple and small gadgets to learn Practical Electronics while working with Educational Hobby Circuits.  Lastly to make your own product designs, a fundamental knowledge of Analog and Digital Electronics is the foundation for your next steps into Engineering a Design.  

Applications and Components

The basic building blocks for most circuits are Chips or ICs. You can acquire considerable knowledge by studying Application notes of National Semiconductor and Texas Instruments  to start with. When you want to use a Microprocessor or Build Your Own Microcontroller Projects, you can study the documents at Atmel and Microchip to begin. The Specifications and Behavior of Passive Components like inductors, capacitors and Resistors; Discrete Semiconductors; Power Devices. and RF Components have to be understood well, in order to design sturdy Industrial Grade Designs eg. ST.

EE Design Fundamentals
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Embedded Systems Design

An Embedded Microcontroller or DSP system is made of Chips, Circuits and Firmware. The digital voltage levels, speed, bus width, fan out, power consumption are some factors that a designer has to keep in mind. As portable and wireless gadgets are becoming more popular, RF, Ethernet and Energy Efficient Design aspects should be studied. Power electronics and Analog Circuits knowledge is used around the system, all this is integrated to make an instrument, equipment or gadget.

 
Embedded Systems Design
 
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USB Serial Interface

There are many Serial Data Devices that means those that use the RS232 (old mouse port). USB is now the standard interface in most computers and embedded devices. Many mini embedded sensors and devices come with High Speed Serial Interfaces.

This page lists solutions and methods to get These Devices talking with your computer. The focus will be HandHeld Computers made of the Android OS. This way you can get your hand on the Real World thru USB and Serial. USB to parallel also helps when you want to control a Relay or Solenoid Array. Wireless Interfaces also are a good Solution with Networking.

FTDI Chips and Driver Solutions

USB TTL Serial Cables

The USB TTL Serial cables are a range of USB to serial converter cables which provide connectivity between USB and serial UART interfaces. A range of cables are available offering connectivity at 5V, 3.3V or user specified signal levels with various connector interfaces.

USB TTL Serial Cables

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Analog OpAmp Circuits

Operational Amplifiers With a few Op-Amps and a regulated Power supply, many Instrumentation and Process control equipment can be designed. The Human Brain understands Numbers, Quantity and it regulation very well ! On the right you can see a analog controller based on opamps and discrete devices. A Heater, Fan and Motor is regulated, controlled and timed for a process.

Learn this at my Industrial Process Control Circuits 

Analog OpAmp Circuits

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Design Notes of delabs

Amps-n-Volts eMag Near 2001 i started sharing my learning and experience in Electronics Engineering on Blogs and Newsletters. One of the Successful eMag and electronic email magazine ran for five years. I lost interest later in the email mag, and this magazine just morphed into a dozen or more Tech Blogs that run today.

From the feedback i got, i am happy to sense that it has helped engineers and enthusiasts worldwide in Electronic Product Design. These blogs contain most of the Magazine - Schematics of delabs - Soldermans Basics - Circuits Faq

My knowledge is limited to my experience, observation, perception, learning and beliefs, but i have to express my views freely. These posts are mirrored in design devices

Amps-n-Volts Design Notes

Some Technical Points

  • Before you open a PC remove power, telephone modem and LAN cables else finger and screwdriver in wrong place can zap chips.
  • The products that survive the infant mortality time of say first six months will last quite long.
  • NTSC is like 320 x 240 pixels, which is TV, which is lower than your computer's 800 x 600.
  • When a microwave oven is turned on, a big spike is caused in the power line due to heavy inrush current on start up, Even pumps and motors cause such short time surges. This causes tripping of electrical protection circuits.
  • When a tree branch falls on the high voltage overhead electrical lines, they spark violently and supply trips.
  • Big or tall trucks go in small roads they may snap all low level cable or telephone wires on their way.
  • Do you need to turn on many equipments-machines all at once? do it one after an other sequentially or use a timer for delays. This is because at peak power demand time, turning on all can cause your fuse to blow or worse.
  • A battery that can be charged is best charged in CC constant current and CV constant voltage modes, that means both current and voltage have to be limited. When a battery is deep discharged many times it will age fast, and an empty battery will take huge currents so limit current. overcharging a battery will killit. After a voltage level is reached it should only trickle charge in mA and a battery has to be cut off on overload or before deep discharge
  • The Lead acid battery breathes a lot, so keep them in a well ventilated open space but rain proof. Use sealed maintenance free battery when possible, these are safer.
  • Teflon tape can be used to make leak proof pneumatic or hydraulic connections if junctions are leaking.
  • The current thru a 3mm or 5mm LED (light emitting diode) should not exceed 20mA, 15mA is quite good.
  • In a circuit swap all PNP and NPN , reverse all diodes and el-caps, reverse the supplies and input polarities, most of the circuit may still work like they did before.
  • A sharp bend in a PCB track is a huge inductance (say 1nH ) when it comes to RF. it may radiate or reflect, it may even act like an antenna and pick up RF from the SMPS, Motor or Cellphones nearby.
  • Persistence of vison around 16 frames a second (60mS) hence very fast events not seen .

Some of these points may be repeated and some not relevant in the present technical engineering scenario. As issues may have been set right, years back.

Amps-n-Volts Archive

Instrumentation Notes

Design Notes

Production Notes

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

When you are trying to arrive at a complex Embedded Systems and Communications solution, You will think of a DSP. Now that computers and embedded devices are used in most electronic devices, DSP is a way you can process, transform, analyze and generate fast analog data, in Real Time.

Real Time ideally is instantaneous or in sync, in tandem. Not an Zepto Second lost. But in the real world many analog inputs or result outputs can be processed a lot slower. So it is more like, How 'real time' you want, how cost-effective a real-time solution can be provided. If the analog input is slow and the system inertia is high and the user response time is limited by his persistence of vision, you need to make a system just a bit faster, even Microseconds delay may be fine. In yet another case it may be pico seconds.

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

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PIC Microcontroller

These are Tiny Chips that integrate the Microprocessor and Peripheral chips in a compact size with low power consumption. PIC Microcontrollers from Microchip are the evolved computing digital devices that go into many gadgets and intelligent equipment. These ar easy to program and reprogram and even protect your code or IP.

The PIC has the math power. The memory, the I/O ports are integrated in the chip like 8051. Some may remember that Microprocessors like 8085 and Z80 had all these functions in chips outside and used to consume more power. Then came CMOS and better IC technology. The 8051(now avr, atmega)and PIC Micro are entire boards in one chip.

PICkit 1 Flash Starter Kit of Microchip

The PICkit 1 FLASH Starter Kit is a low-cost development kit with an easy to use interface for programming Microchip's 8/14-pin FLASH family of microcontrollers. This starter kit is designed to help the user get up to speed quickly using PIC microcontrollers.

PICkit 1 FLASH Starter Kit

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Most of my early life as a R&D Engineer, i have been in Analog. Here are design aspects of circuits using Op-amps and Comparators. Discrete Semiconductor Circuit design like using Transistors and Diodes. RLC parts. The related blog is my delabs Schematics.

Analog Design

Things related to Electronic Design in all its aspects. That includes the prototyping, mechanical, electrical and PCB. Product Safety, EMI-RFI, Reliability and Robustness. The related blog is here Design Gopher

Electronic Design

This Section is related to Microcontrollers and Related Resources. Microcontroller, SOC, FPGA, ASIC. From 80C31 to the Latest ARM chips will be the scope of this section.  The related blog is  here Hyper Embedded

Embedded Systems

Product Design - Industrial Automation and Instrumentation. delabs Technologies uses the brand names delabs and dapj in its Web Services and Resource Sites. These together form an Electronics Informatics and Product Design Technologies Web Consultatory. Updates are Here delabs SmartView

delabs Synergy Car

The design of Power Supplies, DC to DC and AC to DC Convertors, SMPS, High Voltage and High Current equipment. Mosfets, Thyristor, Schottky Diodes, Ferrite Magnetics and Chokes are the various components used. Power Electronics qt delabs.

 Power Electronics

 

Electronic Components and Engineering Materials. The parts, kits, tools that are used in designing and manufacturing electronic products. The Mechanical Nuts-Bolts and Raw Materials used in Electronic Manufacturing. The related blog - Components and Materials.

Electronic Components delabs